Within this audio portfolio you will find a collection of audio work that I have produced as a 4th year radio student. My first project of the year will be my participatory production in partnership with Upstart. During this, I will focus on a short audio documentary. I will then write the script for a drama play and create an audio book from a children's story. Read, listen, criticize and enjoy my portfolio for 2011.

3rd Year Highlights

Here is a series of work that I produced throughout 2010. For a full scope of my work, visit my portfolio of 2010.



An emotional battle won. This is the story of a man who continues to fight for the future of this community. He believes that pornographic exposure will send children down the path that he once walked.

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The Makana Football League has just concluded, and the newly crowned champions City Pirates are hoping to build on what has been a successful season.


The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the SPCA, is an animal shelter 4 kilometers outside of Grahamstown. It is known by few within the community of Grahamstown, yet the SPCA do so much for the animals in the town, and also a substantial amount for the community. So how does the SPCA rescue the animals? Linda Nel, training inspector and manager of SPCA, enlightens us.


On the 10th of July 2010, a solar powered plane embarked on the first successful 24 hour flight. While many people might consider this a strange exercise for aviators, this historic event could be the beginning of an important turn around in our demand for fossil fuels.

Aviation contributes to 5% of the total human impact of global warming. The fossil fuel emissions from flying will double in the next 20 years, and is now the fastest growing cause of global warming. Clearly then the emission of the non-renewable fuels from aircraft are having a significant impact on the environment. But now that the first 24 hour solar powered flight has recently and successfully taken place, there is yet hope to combat this problem. With so much solar power available, why is no-one making use of it? New energy specialist from NMMU Dr Foster explains.


The nature of the community within which I will be operating can be narrowed down to social, economic, political and cultural aspects.

The nature of Grahamstown is socially and geographically diverse. It can be split into three demographics, namely the students, the residents that surround the schools and university, and the residents that live in the location. Generally speaking, individuals socialize within each demographic

There is a distinct economic divide between what one can call the wealthy students and the poorer residents of the location. As a result, this economic divide causes severe differences in lifestyle and effectively social norms and values. However, the student population does effectively boost the economy. Rhodes is a particularly good example, due to the amount of staff that are hired here. It is evident from the racial divide, that there are scars of apartheid. According to recent studies (Statistics South Africa, 2005), over 15000 people are unemployed. Most individuals living in the location are poverty stricken and lack basic resources (Mpokela, M., 2010). HIV/AIDS is also a significant problem, but there are attempts to better the situation thanks to centers like the Jabez Health Centre, of which there are 40 volunteers.

The political situation in Grahamstown is thought to be a vague one. Many people aren’t even aware of the people in power here, and it is believed by many that not enough is being done. For example, when the hurricane hit Grahamstown, the poorer areas were hit the worst, and the damages have still not been repaired, leaving many homeless.

As an audio journalist, I don’t believe that absolute objectivity is possible, or even necessary for successful journalism.

I believe that there is only objectivity to the extent that the facts are true and the sources are reliable. According to Glasser (1992:181), reporting has stripped journalists of their ability to be creative and imaginative. Imagination is a vital aspect of journalism, as it prompts the journalist to come up with new and interesting ideas. In my opinion, the purpose of journalism is to create change and awareness, to mediate between the public and authority, and to deliver it all in an entertaining manner. This is not possible through just raw facts.

Objectivity has “robbed journalists of their passion and their perspective” (Glasser, 1992:181). Grahamstown, as explained in the previous question, is diverse in social life and culture, and it is near impossible to be objective amongst such complexity. Subjectivity is important as it sparks debate, and it is especially vital for the voices and opinions of the people in Grahamstown to be heard so that their needs can be met.

I agree with Glasser (1992:180), when he says there is a responsibility on the reporter to be accountable for what is being reported. But there is a difference between being accountable, and being objective. The elite protecting their interests through mere facts, is not the way forward.

As said before, I believe that Grahamstown has demographics, and each demographic, particularly the students, restrict themselves to a ‘bubble’ that deprives them of knowing what is going on on a larger scale of Grahamstown. Therefore the stories that I believe should be told are ones that bridge the gaps in society. For instance, a story publishing local entertainment would be a very good way to not only boost the audience and thus the economy, but it is also an opportunity for students to ‘burst their bubble’ and become more in touch with their surrounding community.

I also believe it is of significant importance to report on the politics of Grahamstown. As said before, not enough is being done to rectify desperate situations, and according to recent studies (Statistics South Africa, 2005), over 5000 people of school going age are not being educated. So why is this happening? The people of Grahamstown must be more in touch with these issues so that pressure can be put on the government.


We decided as a team to report on Julius Malema’s outburst, the potential closing down of the old gaol, the SAMWU strikes, a soccer cinema in the township and local music on radio stations. We felt that our choices covered a range of issues to interest a diverse range of cultural groups.

The Malema story and the local music stories were both beyond Grahamstown, but they matter to South Africa, as they affect SA on both a political and economical level. It however has little relevance on the major issues in Grahamstown so a large scale story should perhaps be limited to one.

I believe we ‘stretched the boundaries’ by representing different social groups in Grahamstown. The old gaol represents to a certain extent the students who go there, the SAMWU strikes represent the residents and the soccer cinema represents the people in the location. Problems were identified and political solutions were expressed, such as the backpackers opinions in the old gaol.

As I have said in my personal philosophy, subjectivity is very important so as to spark debate. I felt that we covered an efficient range of sources, not only from people in authority but from ordinary citizens. The story that I individually reported on however only had a voicer, which meant it lacked in credibility and depth. Next time I will put in sources, perhaps 1 or 2 from someone in authority and from a witness/citizen. It was an important story though, as it is an important issue that has affected residents and workers for separate reasons, but the story covered both their concerns.

I think for the next podcast, in order to comply to the agena more thoroughly, we should keep to the stories that concern the residents of Grahamstown the most. The last podcast was lacking in an economical story, and the property story I am looking into now for instance should be included as it concerns thousands of residents. The soccer cinema story is a good idea into bridging the societal gap, but only 150 people went to see it, so those types of stories would make a bigger impact if it involved more people.

The diversity of the stories and the sources is very important, so we must keep that for the next podcast.



The media play an important role in shaping the publics beliefs of the significance of climate change. “Public perception and attitudes with regard to those domains are significantly influenced by representations…conveyed by the press” (Carvalho 2007:223). But what should the media be doing?

There is too much focus on climate change itself- the facts of the past, present and future devastations. What must be taken predominantly into consideration is what can be done to sustain a habitable planet. The following passage will be broken down into three sections. The first will go into more detail about the role of the media in climate change, the issues involved for the journalist when reporting on climate change and what the most appropriate ways are to report on climate change. Reuters will be used in this passage as an example of modern day journalism’s take on climate change. The second will describe the production process of the package that I created on aviation and solar power. The third will discuss what I could have done better in line with the guidelines given to me by Algoa FM, the local commercial radio station that will air some of the climate change packages done by the radio class.


According to studies (Carvalho 2007:227), the number of newspaper articles on climate change has dramatically increased. In the newspaper the guardian from the period 1985 to 2001, the amount of newspaper articles had gone from 0 to over 350. This type of increase intensifies the public’s perception of climate change, and also leaves many different opinions to choose from on the various issues concerned with climate change. It can be said that is surely for the best, as it allows the public to take a stance, and then react on that stance to bring about change. But then the question must be raised as to how objective the articles are, and whether the facts are true, or scandalized. It is believed by Carvalho (2007) that research has become more sophisticated which has allowed journalists to report with a more informed and comprehensive approach. “The media act as secondary validators by reporting on and diffusing the factual claims of primary validators (social institutions)” (Carvalho 2007:225). If this is the case, then the information that the journalists report on is as good as the information that they receive in the first place. But then lies the issue of bias. Journalists can fall into the trap of subjectivity by taking a certain stance on climate change, and building a story around that stance. The problem is of course that the public may take this as fact, and therefore shape their understanding of climate change around this, irrelevant of how informed the journalist was when producing the article. According to Rob O’Donoghue (2010), a specialist on climate change who came in to talk to the radio class, “Journalists scandalize global warming, scientists see this and a tyranny therefore forms.” Therefore it is the task of the journalists to produce stories in accordance with the findings of the scientists, so that an accurate reflection of what is going on in climate change can be understood by the public.

I believe Reuters to be a good example of journalistic reporting that offers stories that are well informed and objective. As my package was on solar power and aviation, I found a story from their website (Fribault, 2010) that was on the first solar powered flight. It was backed up with numerous sources and various forms of media. Sources included those from the Swiss President of the project, and the pilot of the plane. There were several pictures to depict the event, and then there was a forum for ordinary citizens at the end of the article to discuss the quality article and the significance of the event. There is also a section that presents a link to similar stories, with these stories bearing similar journalistic techniques. This is a successful way of reporting on climate change as it allows the public to become part of the reporting. According to Haas’s Public Philosophy (2007:27), journalists should see citizens as active participants in the democratic process, which is becoming of great importance in order to push for the realization that it is the ordinary citizens who can bring about change, and importantly in this case, climate change. Reuters are careful to not move away from objectivity, by stating facts that are backed up by trusted sources.


We were informed by Algoa FM and the South East African Climate Consortium (SEACC) to cover environmental journalism using mainstream media conventions. My understanding of mainstream media conventions includes objectivity, expert sources and professionalism. In light of this, I ensured that my package eliminated opinions and governmental criticism, and included relevant and factual information backed up by expert sources.

Throughout the course of the term, we enhanced our skills in editing and interview techniques. We refreshed our knowledge on the importance of ambience, and where to put it and how long for. Ambience is crucial as it creates a more illustrated picture of the story and keeps the audience interested. Our interviews were usually between 15-20 minutes and we were required to cut each interview down to roughly two minutes in order to create a final six minute piece. This was good editing practice in determining what to keep for the benefit of the audience. When it came to interviewing, we were encouraged to inform the interviewee about exactly what the purpose of the package was for, and then to undergo the interview with well researched questions and information. The importance of follow up questions during and after the interview was also emphasized.

With all the guidelines and skills in place, I went about the production of my package. Firstly, I had to choose my topic, and after hearing about the first solar powered flight that had recently occurred, and the benefits of solar power that had been brought up in discussion in class, I thought combining the two would be a good topic. From there I did further research into what happened to make the flight possible, the benefits of solar power, and the progress of solar power production and usage in South Africa. Then I had to choose who to interview. A source that immediately came to mind was my Dad, Sam Sizeland, who is well informed in the aviation industry as he has years of experience as a pilot and has recently completed a masters degree in financial aviation. I managed to get the greatest amount of detail from him about what companies are doing to go ‘greener’, and whether or not there is a future for solar power in aviation. I then turned to more local sources to gain a better understanding of solar power usage in South Africa. I got hold of new energy specialist Dr Foster through the contacts that SEACC provided for us. He spoke to me about why solar power isn’t being used to its greatest potential, and the extent to which large companies in South Africa are attempting to go greener. Bool Smuts was my third interview, and I found his contact on the internet through the landmark foundation of conservation organization in East London, of which he works for. He complemented Dr Foster by speaking of what the Eastern Cape is doing in response to the heavy costs of solar power usage. The final stage of the production process was to bring the interviews together to form a six minute package. As my Dad had the most substantial amount of information, I used his voice the most. At times, I mixed the sequence of the voices rather than having one interview after the other, to make the link between aviation and solar power more effective. As a good sign off, I included the sound of a plane taking off. Otherwise I didn’t feel that there were good opportunities for ambience, especially since the interviews were done over the phone. In attempting to keep the audience interested, I made my narration short and to the point, and included dramatic statements from the interview such as ‘it is clear that we are poisoning ourselves’ and ‘you know it just wouldn’t happen.’

I chose this story mainly because of the great potential that South Africa has for solar power production, and why it is not being used to its full potential. I have a personal interest in aviation, and as aviation is one of the leading contributors to the emissions of fossil fuels, I felt it appropriate to see what alternatives there are, one of which is solar power.


In assessing my package, I needed to ask myself, ‘what makes good radio storytelling?’ In my opinion good radio storytelling is entertaining, it provides something to the benefit of the public, it is well researched, concise and to the point, with faultless editing and interesting sounds.

So in light of what constitutes good radio, what were my shortcomings? I believe that in terms of content, it would have helped to have a couple more interview sources to make the package more reliable, as I only had two experts in the field of solar power and one in the field of aviation. A variety of sources would have made the information more convincing, and perhaps more interesting. Also, the interviews were all phone ins, which lowers the quality of sound. A voice from Grahamstown would have been useful, not only because the interview would have had better sound quality, but because Grahamstown is an area in the Eastern Cape, and therefore an area of concern. All in all however I believe that I followed the guidelines set by Algoa FM and SEACC, by staying objective and by having reliable and knowledgeable sources. The editing was sound, the ambience was used appropriately at the end, and a better understanding of the benefits of solar power and what is being done in the Eastern Cape to make solar power more readily available can definitely be achieved by listening to this package.

The agency that we as a radio class constructed at the beginning of the year, gave us the necessary guidelines to produce stories that will provide fair and accurate stories to the benefit of the public. It largely leans towards development journalism, and this way of producing stories, rather than Algoa’s guidelines of mainstream journalism, could have been an alternative way of producing the stories. According to Banda (2006:11), public service broadcasting involves universal accessibility, good programming and independent programme-making. Development journalism on the other hand, involves focusing on remote areas, cultural identity and community, distance from the influence of the state, and the value of independent and democratic participation. So with this in mind there a couple of reasons to have used development journalism. If articles focused on concentrated areas, like the Eastern Cape for instance, the public could work together a lot easier to promote the issue of climate change in that area. By including Bool Smuts into my package, I feel that to an extent I have done this. Also, since it is the public that is affected by climate change and the public are the audience for these packages, these ordinary citizens should play a part in the production of these packages. The community should set the agenda; they should hear what they want to hear. Although it can be said that this can only work to a certain extent because it is the scientists that know the facts behind global warming, and therefore these facts need to be reported in order for the public to have an exact idea of what is happening to the environment, and what steps must be taken to rectify the situation.


From producing the package I learnt that there is great potential for solar power in South Africa, as it is one of the greatest producers of it in the world. However, it is not used to its full potential due to heavy costs, but plans are in motion to make it cheaper through development projects. I also learnt that aviation is some way away from introducing solar power on a large scale, but with the recent flight, and plans for another flight in the near future, there is still hope. In the meantime, large companies such as Virgin Atlantic are becoming more fuel efficient and are introducing various ways to go more ‘green’.

The media play a very important in shaping people’s beliefs of the impact of global warming on the environment. Therefore if what the journalists produce is subjective and not necessarily true, it becomes an issue that needs addressing. Journalists have in the past scandalized the issue of climate change, rather than producing stories that can provide genuine information that can rectify the issue of global warming. I believe that the packages that the radio class has produced, including mine, perhaps despite its shortcomings, goes some way towards showing that objective and factual stories that provide use for the public can still be entertaining and interesting to listening to, and this in turn can prompt the audience, the public, to contribute towards aiding the issue of climate change.


Banda, F. 2006. An Appraisal of the Applicability of Development Journalism in the Context of PBS. Rhodes University.

Carvalho, A. 2007. Ideological Cultures and media discourses on Scientific Knowledge. Public Understanding of Science, 16: 223-243.

Fribault, V. 2010. Aircraft Completes First Solar Powered Flight. Retrieved 24 August, 2010, from C:\Documents and Settings\Tom\My Documents\Radio\Aircraft completes first solar-powered night flight Reuters.mht

Haas, T. 2007. A public philosophy for public journalism in The pursuit of Public journalism: theory, practice and criticism. Routledge: New York.


South African broadcasting is a product of history. “The current material and technological framework of broadcasting is the result of apartheid policies” (Barnett, 1999:649). Broadcasting was heavily invested in for propaganda purposes, which has contributed to the infrastructure that can be seen in many radio stations today.

SABC owned stations are still used for propaganda purposes today now that government control is limited. While the content seems largely political in nature, woman and children’s programming as well as economic reporting and radio dramas are an important component of programming. The following passage will discuss the three tiers of radio broadcasting, namely public, commercial and community, the stations within them, and their regulations in terms of the IBA (Independent Broadcasting Authority) and ICASA (Independent Communications Authority of South Africa).

Broadcasting in South Africa is regulated by ICASA. It issues broadcast licenses, ensures universal service and access, monitors the industry and controls and manages the frequency spectrum (ICASA, 2010). There’s also the National Association of Broadcasters, that helps promote and regulate the industry, as well as the Broadcasting Complaints Commission, set up to adjudicate and mediate complaints against any broadcaster who has signed its code of conduct (SAinfo, 2010). According to section 2 of the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), which is now ICASA, the authority has several principles which they value their licensing agreements on. What is broadcasted must cater for all language and cultural groups, the needs of these groups are met and it must provide entertainment, education and information. Stability within the broadcasting industry must be promoted, and fair competition between broadcasting licenses must be ensured (ICASA, 2010).

The SABC provides the public broadcasting service, as well as the commercial service which broke away from the public service. The public service is delivered from the public for the public. It serves the public interest and democracy. It is free from political influence and commercial pressure. The stations within this service have a lot of talk content that aim to cover a wide variety of issues that can push for the values that the principles of democracy rests on. Its revenue is largely from licensing fees. Commercial radio stations don’t necessarily have everything that the public service aims to deliver. It is privatized and the owners run them for profit. Revenue comes from advertising and sponsorship. Some of the stations are characterized by popular music, but some also have a lot of talk content. Commercial radio had 2 independent radio stations before 1994, namely Radio 702 and Capital Radio. With the deregulation and liberalization of broadcasting, the number of stations proliferated (NAB, 2010). Community radio began in 1994, when the broadcasting authority started to grant licenses to diverse groups as part of the transformation process (NAB, 2010). ICASA community station requirements are that talk shows are prioritized over music shows, they cater to different linguistic groups, they are non-profit organizations, there is a separation of powers, and that the community actively participates (ICASA, 2010). The community stations are broadcasted to create strong, unique relationships within particular communities, which push for development, transformation and reconciliation. Therefore the communities are typically the ones that fight for a common purpose, eg. religious affiliations and the poor. Therefore the content of the stations include talk shows that address local issues, as well as local music. The community forms the base of the Bush Radio organization. An AGM elects the board of directors and reviews development and financial policies (Bush Radio News, 2010).

Over 100 Community sound services are now in existence. Although the sector has struggled to access advertising, it is recognized as being a crucial part of the South African broadcasting landscape in providing skills for potential radio staff (NAB, 2010).

An example of a community radio station is Bush radio- the oldest community-based radio station. It was first known as CASET (Cassette Education Trust) as they recorded information on tapes, distributing them to the public. Its key objective was to inform and educate the poor on issues such as literacy, health, hygiene and politics. They were issued their first four year permanent license in 2002 (NAB, 2010).

The role of ICASA for Bush Radio is to determine whether or not the station caters to the needs of the target audience, and to administer the airwaves without interference from the government. The IBA was “committed to democracy, diversity and development” (Barnett, 1999:649).

Bush radio’s editorial policies can be divided into four areas, including broadcasting, upliftment projects, scholarship and training programmes and human potential development. The station is permanently on air, and presented in three different languages by equally represented genders. It covers social and political issues facing post-apartheid South Africa. The station has 23 upliftment projects, with on air programmes linked with off air activities (Bush Radio News, 2010). These various projects that include for instance HIV/AIDS programmes, and the Broadcast Training Institute, are presented in order to address communities to the most critical issues facing their lives, which in turn are aimed to lead these communities in the right direction in resolving these issues. This is a critical aspect of the licensing agreement requirement of the needs of groups being met by providing education and information.

There are five permanent members at Bush, as well as ten trainees and over 100 volunteers.

While advertising forms 50% of the station’s income, one of their main policies is the exclusion of advertising from gambling and alcohol companies, which is a lucrative source of funding for many commercial enterprises. Income also comes from sponsorships and donors and grants for upliftment projects (Bush Radio News, 2010).

The station is largely aimed at the poor, the informal settlements and trade unions, from people aged six to sixty. According to statistics however, it is parents who mainly listen to it, perhaps in an attempt to be a good influence on the youth, in leading them in the right direction for the future (Bush Radio News, 2010).

An example of a commercial radio station is Radio 702, a product of Primedia, targeting higher LSM’s for profit. Premedia is a privately owned media group that owns a number of media assets, including eyewitness news. Eyewitness news is responsible for the collection and production of news that is distributed to its radio stations (including 702), ensuring effective, efficient and economical news (Primedia, 2010). 702 is a 24-hour news station, presenting a voice of change and opinions through in depth news (702, 2010). It targets upper income listeners ranging from the age 25-49. It is Johannesburg’s number one current affairs station, with lots of phone-in debates. It has over half a million listeners in Gauteng, and it prides itself in vibrant programming and professional presenters (702, 2010).

It has a five minute news bulletin on an hourly basis. It is a strong supporter of independent broadcasting. It has strong depth in coverage, and has highly credible and understandable news, with emphasis on presentation.

The presenters are experienced and offer their own views as well as attempting to (but not always managing to due to the tendencies of being subjective) being objective and creating a conversation between the host and the listeners. They have 20 music presenters and 24 news presenters, diverse in their gender, age, skin colour and background.

702 and Bush radio have very different approaches to news, in terms of their bulletin composition and content, and the way in which these stories are delivered. As a commercial station, Radio 702 has the funding to have numerous members of staff with particular tasks assigned to them, such as field recording, live reporting, news presenting and anchoring.

Using a recent bulletin on Terre’blanche’s murder as an example, the techniques and evidence of resources is clearly different from Bush Radio and Radio 702. The story is shorter on Bush Radio, possibly because they are not primarily a news station. There is irrelevant information in relation to the importance of the story, suggesting that the editing skills of the news writer are not strong. Also, they have included the name of one of the suspects of the murder, which is not allowed until the person has pleaded guilty, which shows unprofessionalism. The 702 version is more in depth in content and includes live voicers and soundbites to add to its credibility.

702’s bulletin composition is consistent from day to day. The first three to four stories are on a national level, and they are usually political and occasionally crime-related. The order of these are based on what the news producers feel are most important. There is usually an international story at the end, always followed by traffic, sport and weather. As it is primarily a news station, the stories are in-depth in their content and professionally executed, usually with live reporting to add credibility. I believe it is all very professionally done. The bulletin intro’s and outro’s fade in and out very well. There is never dead air, and the transition from the news to the traffic etc is smooth. The stories are usually delivered in the form of a wrap around. The anchor introduces the cue, which is then followed by a combination of a recorded audible soundbites. The voicers are delivered by a number of different reporters. This shows that the amount of staff at 702 is ample, and the live reporting suggests they possess the adequate resources to be at the scene of the incident to deliver the story. The live reporting gives a ‘we’re on the scene’ feeling and adds to the credibility of the story. The international stories are usually a straight-read from the anchor.

Bush Radio delivers similar stories at the top of their bulletins. These are usually on a national level and are followed by one or two local stories. Sport and traffic follow, which is usually done by the news anchor, suggesting a lack of staff. The bulletin intro’s and outro’s are harsh as there is no fading, and there is often dead air, perhaps too much in between stories and I believe far too much for the transition time to the voicer piece and in between traffic stories. I believe this shows that the anchor is not a professional as s/he is unfamiliar with how to use the switchboard. It also suggests a lack of training. Words often get mixed up. The stories are usually a straight read by the anchor, with occasional voicers and wraparounds. The soundbites however are usually phone-ins and are sometimes inaudible. The anchors sometimes change from one day to the next, which suggests that they are attempting to fulfill their policy of training staff by constantly exposing them to live recording.

As discussed in section 2 and mentioned above, as a community station, Bush Radio attempts to incorporate training and development into their mandate. However, while this is an important aspect of the radio station, and an important regulation to uphold in terms of their licensing agreement, it does affect the quality of their news. In one bulletin I heard from the 6th of April, there was dead air for almost 30 seconds after complications with playing a soundbite. Perhaps this wouldn’t have happened with a professional anchor who knows exactly how to work the technology, and then react quick to potential problems.

Ray White is the anchor for 702, and he has an energetic and professional approach. The content of the stories usually test the boundaries of objectivity. The content often has statements not backed up by credible sources. For instance in the Terre’blanche story, the reporter states he was ‘bludgeoned to death’- a statement he came up with, even though he wasn’t at the scene of the crime. This suggests subjectivity to back a certain side to the story. 702 therefore don’t completely adhere to the licensing agreement of providing impartial and objective news for diverse cultural groups, who may have different views on the matter.

Bush Radio is a local station and should therefore focus more on issues that are of importance to the communities listening. The story of a Maritzburg baby found in a toilet for instance, has no relevance to the communities in Cape Town. Community stations are on air to deliver stories that are local to address the problems surrounding that particular community. It can be argued that stories like this have local relevance in terms of their angles, but there are often stories that don’t necessarily have local relevance, and to this extent then, Bush Radio isn’t adhering to the licensing agreement. Bush Radio perhaps lacks the staff and resources to go out and find local stories, and they therefore depend on taking their stories from other news sources such as SAPA.

In conclusion, it can be said that there are 3 distinct tiers of broadcasting, each being different in terms of their funding, resources and content. It can also be said that each tier doesn’t strictly stick to their licensing agreements as presented above. The licensing agreements are in place to ensure that there are limits on government control, and the content that is developed is to ensure that the audience is fed with entertaining and objective information that promotes the values of democracy. It is therefore the task of ICASA to ensure that this happens.


702 Talk Radio. “On Air Info” http://www.702.co.za/onair/heardonair.asp, accessed 28 April, 2010.

Barnett, C. 1999. “The Limits of Media Democratisation in South Africa: Politics, Privatization and Regulation,” in Media Culture and Society. Reading University.

Bush Radio News. http://bushradionews.blogspot.com/, accessed 28 April, 2010.

ICASA. 2010. Welcome to ICASA. Retrieved 2 April 2010 from http://www.icasa.org.za/

National Association of Broadcasters. 2010. “Broadcasting in South Africa” http://www.nab.org.za/broadcast.asp, accessed 28 April, 2010.

Primedia. 2010. “Our Profile” http://www.primedia.co.za/about_us/, accessed 28 April, 2010.

SouthAfrica.info. 2010. South Africa’s Radio Stations. Retrieved 2 April 2010 from http://www.southafrica.info/about/medi